Set in the northeast part of Iowa is Effigy Mounds National Monument, a preservation of 200 prehistoric mounds created by Native Americans including some shaped like animals, including birds and bears. They are located in Allamake and Clayton counties in Iowa. It is close to the town of Marquette, Iowa. It is adjacent to the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, the Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge, the Yellow Snake River State Park, and a short distance to the south of Pikes Peak State Park.
This area was a point of transition from the eastern hardwood forests and the central prairies. Native Americans and early settlers would have been able to draw on natural resources available in the forests, wetlands, and prairies in this area. It is considered sacred by many Americans, but especially the 12 affiliated American Indian tribes. They are located in one of the most beautiful sections of the Upper Mississippi River Valley.
The park has 14 miles of hiking trails. There are no paved public automobile access roads in the park. Rangers give guided tours and prehistoric tool demonstrations for the public from mid-June through Labor Day weekend. Effigy Mounds was proclaimed a National Monument on October 25, 1949.
Present day American Indian tribes affiliated with Effigy Mounds National Monument include:
Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska
Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma
Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Oklahoma
Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin
Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska
Upper Sioux Community of Minnesota
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community In the State of Minnesota
Lower Sioux Indian Community In the State of Minnesota
Prairie island Indian Community In the State of Minnesota
Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa
Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska
Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma
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Effigy Mounds National Monument